Jiansan Jia and Jiaxin Chen, have published a paper (2001) entitled Sea Farming and Sea Ranching in China.
The various sea farming and sea ranching practices used in the People’s Republic of China are reviewed, based on published and unpublished information, statistical data and field experiences. The development of marine fisheries during the past 50 years is described. Following their decline caused by overfishing and the ecological degradation of the coastal environment, emphasis was shifted from marine capture fisheries to aquaculture-based operations, including farming and ranching of marine organisms both in inshore and offshore areas. The biology and culture of major representatives of five species groups (seaweed, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms and fish), involving a total of 67 different species, are presented, together with detailed production statistics. The eight sea farming and ranching systems actually used in China are presented. Several aspects related to marine resources management for sea farming and ranching are discussed, such as legislation, research on genetics and biodiversity, health management and marine habitat rehabilitation. Monitoring and evaluation according to biological, environmental and socio-economic standards are briefly considered.