SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (2005) has published a Code of Practice for Sustainable Use of Mangrove Ecosystems for Aquaculture in Southeast Asia.
Objectives of the Code of Practice
• To define principles, guidelines, and best practices for responsible aquaculture in mangrove ecosystems in Southeast Asia
• To provide a tool to guide States, non-government organizations, research and academic institutions, aquaculture practitioners, mangrove managers, local communities, global and regional aid and financial institutions, and other stakeholders concerned with both responsible aquaculture and the conservation and sustainable use of mangrove ecosystems
• To recommend key legislation and enforcement mechanisms to ensure both responsible aquaculture and the conservation and sustainable use of mangroves.
From the introduction:
Mangrove ecosystems (or simply ‘mangroves’) are the tide-influenced wetland complex consisting of mangrove forests, estuaries, lagoons, and associated habitats along the coasts and around islands in the tropics and subtropics. The mangrove forest consists of seawater-adapted flowering trees and shrubs, and the many associated ferns, fungi, and algae, including many epiphytes. The ‘true mangrove’ plants are members of the genera Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Ceriops, Avicennia, Sonneratia, Xylocarpus, Heritiera, and Excoecaria.
Mangroves support microscopic to large, terrestrial and aquatic (marine and freshwater), transient and resident wildlife. The mangrove physical environment includes waterways, mudflats, salt pans, and islands, with a wide ranges of salinities, daily tidal flood and ebb, and anaerobic mud bottoms.